Teaching and learning English have been conducted in many reasons, situations and places. It is based

on the needs of the students or the users. Jeremy Harmer had divided learning English according to places of the teaching and learning such as School and language school where English is learnt in the school based on the curriculum; in school and in company where English is learnt to achieve the high score and the teacher is hired by the company to teach the employers to get the goal; real and virtual learning environments where English is learnt through the internet access because of the different region or country.

Not only the places, but also the class size has been the crucial object in English learning and teaching. It will influence the English acquisition and achievement. He discussed about the class size into two categories. They are one-to-one teaching and large classes. One-to-one teaching known is as private class and it usually popular for business students. It is easier to teach individual student than many students; flexible and easy to manage. There are some guidelines in teaching one-to-one such as make a  good impression with the student; be well prepared with the lesson; be flexible with the condition and the time of the student; adapt to the students from any backgrounds by listening and watching them; give clear explanation and guidelines; don’t be afraid to say no.

For the large classes, there are some interactions and vary of characteristics of the students. He also give the key of success in teaching large class such as be organized with the students; establish routines activities in the class so they recognize the teacher means; use a different pace for different activities; maximize individual work to keep them busy; use the students in some responsibilities; use worksheet; use pairwork and groupwork; use chorus reaction; take account of vision and acoustics; and use the size of the group to your advantage.There are also managing the mixed ability in the class and how to deal with monolingual, bilingual and  multilingual in the classroom.


In teaching lesson especially English, the teachers have to deal with the students as describe in fifth chapter Harmer tried to describing the characteristics of learners that are related to age, learner differences language levels, and the motivation of the learners.


In chapter 23, he tried to explain about learner autonomy: learning to learn. To learn a language especially foreign language is very difficult for the students so they have to practice and expose their ability outside the class. Learner autonomy is important, that’s why the teachers should promote the autonomy in the classroom; learner training, learner autonomy; the self-access centre (SAC); after (and outside) the class.

HOW TO TEACH             

There are so many reasons why there are a lot of people want to learn English. Many of them learn English because they have joined to target language community and try to successful in their community. In ESP, the students study English because they need to know how to operate the English in their field. These purposes of learning have become an impact on what they want and need – and as the result will influence what they are taught.



In chapter 1 Brown tried to suggest twelve principles in language teaching; they are automacity deals with timely movement of control; meaningful learning deals with better long-term retention; the anticipation of reward; intrinsic motivation that will give them power in learning from their inside; strategic investment of time, effort and attention as individually battery in comprehending and producing the language, etc.

A principled approach to language teaching makes the teacher engaging on process of diagnosis, treatment, and assessment. Those processes are focused in the classroom deal with the context, purposes and students needs in language teaching and learning.

In chapter 11 Oxford gives some strategies in language learning. The ESL teachers could help their students recognize the power of consciously using language learning strategies to make learning quicker, easier, and more effective and more fun. They also could bring these strategies to regular classroom based on the communicative needs and the particular situation. The learning strategies have also become the research field for all teachers and educators in the world.

In chapter 12 Nunan tried to show learning strategy from the research that conducted by him. From his study, he made opportunities to the learners to reflect on the learning process. The study supported the idea in language classroom that have dual focus – the content of language teaching and developing on language process.


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