Methodology in Language Teaching
Writing is a productive skill that need in language acquisition. It is also known as difficult skill to master by both L1 and L2 students. The students have difficulties in organizing words and ideas to be a good sentences and writings. In writing, the students have to understand the function of grammar, spelling, punctuation and vocabulary selection. The issues are also made by the teachers that are not confident to teach the students because they are also not competence in composing. They never do writing outside the classroom. The book has four articles that would describe the implementation the teaching writing to the students to be good and communicative writers.
First article is written by Raimes that explained about the guidelines in planning writing course and training the teachers of writing. The guidelines consist of learning goals that would help teachers to achieve in the end of the lesson, e.g : do the students write well and have the accuracy on grammar, spelling and punctuation? Have the student compose well based on the topic that been given? Or have the students written their communicative ideas and feel confident in delivering the ideas? All these goals have been the consideration of all teachers in teaching writing. Next step is about how to decide the theoretical principles. There were debating within involving the ideology in teaching writing or not. However, the teachers could confront the ideological position and identify the perception of the type of writing and the roles with the students’ future which is the real life. These ideologies sometimes come from the theory and view of language, the nature of language learning, writing and the nature of the learning of composition. Moreover, the important thing is to teach the writing for in their life and get something meaningful from learning it. Next step is planning the content of writing that would engage the students to write more and more. Therefore, the teachers have to plan an interesting lesson in this skill and use the valuable tool not only for learning the subject but also the important thing is about the language. The students need interesting topics that would help them to generate and find the forms to fit the ideas which take a risk. Next step is weighing the elements which involve the most important parts; they are content, organizing, originality, style, accuracy, and rhetorical forms. Next is Drawing up a syllabus that helps the teachers to organize the content and learning experience in the classroom. Based on Richards (1990) the syllabus consists of structural, functional, topical, situational, skill and process and task. This will guide the teachers to design the syllabus that depends on the students’ goal, theoretical principles, and institution constraints. Sixth step is the teachers have to clever in selecting the materials that fit with the students’ need and interest especially in writing. The seventh step is the preparation to do the activities in the classroom. The teachers have to be careful in delivering the lesson especially writing because if the teachers are lack of preparation the students will not understand and sometimes don’t pay attention. The teachers should share their experience when they are as students so the students could learn easily. The eighth step is the teachers have to be smart in choosing the type of learning and how they give some feed back to the students so, the students will understand what they should do next and help them with the writing. The ninth step is the way of the teachers to evaluate the students’ writings by using portfolios. It is really helpful to see acceptable and good writings of students. The last step is how the teachers reflect the experience of teaching writing to evaluate the teachers and discuss about the problems in the course so they will find the way out. The problems are not only from the students but also from the goals, theories, content, focus, syllabus, material, activities, and feedback. This is important to do after teaching the lesson to get the best teaching and learning in the future.
The second article is about the writing process and process of writing that was written by Anthony Seow. The writing process is a classroom activity including basic writing stages – planning, drafting (writing), revising (redrafting) and editing. Three other stages could be added after the drafting stages; these are responding, evaluating, and post-writing. The process of writing is how the teachers do in the process of writing which are teacher modeling, relating process to product, working within institutional constrains, providing to diverse student needs, and exploiting the use of computers in process writing. The teachers have to give the correction and give the feedback on students’ writings. So, the students could revise and do better in their writings.
The third article is a genre-based approach to content writing instruction written by Randy Reppen. This article basically explain about how genre could use in the writing process and it has been discussed as an approach to the students that give the opportunities to aware of different purpose of written communication and different ways is organized in written texts. Reppen was doing a research on genre-based approach to content of writing instruction and he found that the students when writing as individual, they had s strong desire to turn any task into a story. However, they tend to be struggled and become aware that different task demanded different texts. It is valuable practice in various school-valued ways of writing while they learn content material and work through steps in writing process. Instruction needs to provide a framework so that students can progress toward more academically valued ways of composing, learn the content material, and have a better chance to experience success in school.
The fourth article is about teaching students to self-edit written by Dana Ferris. The article explains about Ferris observation on how to teach students get used to make editing in their writings, not only once but several times to get better result of writing. The self-editing is important as the writing skill itself. This editing has a process of stages such as focusing on form, recognizing major error types, self-editing practice. The stages will help them to be editor for their own work which focus on the students’ own written errors, especially that affect the whole meaning of their written texts.