Mid Test ICT

CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning)

Since computer has developed in Information technology, there are so many application of computer can be found. The computer has established as an important feature of modern life. The package is no longer a big, expensive machine that used only by specialist such as major corporation, military, and the government. Many of us use the computer in daily life, even without aware the impact. The price has fell to be much cheaper and the feature has already simple, handy, more flexible, more adaptable and easier to use by anyone. It has also been used in the school where the teachers use it to teach the students. It is generally known as Computer Assisted Learning (CAL). A computer as a medium is utilized to facilitate people in learning. Technological advances in both hardware (the physical equipment) and software (the program of instructions that tell the computer what work to perform) keep on spreading the capabilities that this powerful medium has to offer.  The successful of computer technology that assisted learning has become new method in teaching and learning language that is called CALL.

CALL is the acronym for “computer-assisted language learning,” the area of applied linguistics concerned with the use of computers for teaching and learning a second language. Some CALL professionals develop CALL materials that are software specifically designed for second-language learning. Others investigate how learners work with CALL software and other online learning mate well as how effective particular CALL activities are. CALL, as an academic area. Kenning (1984) points out computer can be utilized to enhance language learning, and can also be used to generate examples to illustrate certain operations, or to stimulate conversation.
Based on Kenning the CALL helps students to overcome the problem in language learning such as to get their interaction and stimulate conversation among the learners. The interactions that learners have in class position them develop strategies for future communication and learning.  However, CALL has advantage and disadvantage in teaching and learning process.

Advantage of CALL:
It offers some advantage and it is divides into three types: those which are part of its inherent nature, those which benefit the teacher, and those which benefit the learner; the computer the part of its inherent nature, it could handle a much wider range activities in learning the language. Many kinds of activities can be facilitated without any hesitate. It is much more powerfully in developing certain learning skills. It is not only powerfully but also it offers interactive learning in the classroom. So it can make impersonal and literal – minded in every subject of lessons. Moreover, it is unfailingly accurate and precise in judging the result. The last that it can evaluate the result of the learners, they could rewind their learning if there is mistake so that they can fix their mistake with some exercises continuously.
For the teacher there are some advantages of CALL could help them in the classroom such as the computer presents several aspects of particular ability that is prominent in handling of different kinds of material. It helps delivering one-way presentation, form of text, graphics, audio and video.  The teachers can use the CALL as a part of their pedagogy without letting it take over their lesson plans. As Brown points out (2000), a teacher has many responsibilities, including guiding and facilitating learning, setting the conditions for learning, and evaluating learning. He adds teachers as follow:” Your understanding of how the learner learns will determine your philosophy of education, your teaching style, your approach, your methods and classroom technique” (2000, p.7). Based on the Brown understanding, computer could help them expand, and sometimes even revise, their understanding of how learners in learning English and what learners need to become successful English users. It also help teacher to provide guidance by selecting appropriate language and by structuring activities. So it will not be boring and too difficult for them to engage in.
For the students there are many advantages could be taken from the CALL. It is easy to access the lesson if they miss the meeting in the classroom. It is also flexible so they can use it anytime and anywhere they like that accommodate different learning speed. Furthermore, it can motivate the learners in learning English because it can present materials in more diverse ways. It also offer interactive learning and encourage self-driven inquiry so they can learn individually or group works. It can be powerful motivating force for productive study, especially in communicating.

Disadvantage of CALL
CALL needs appropriate hardware and software that have to be agreed with the current pedagogy. It also need much time to be integrated with the curriculum and the syllabus at the school. Furthermore, it needs the teacher training before implement the CALL in the classroom so the teacher could understand how to operate and to explain to their students. It also needs much money to design CALL in the school and has to be related to students-environment because it relies on the level of commitment and engagement of related parties. It does not take place instantly or by the touch of a magic wand. The CALL program has to be evaluated, like other educational materials that have to be sorted before it is used by the learners. It will make teachers become redundant, and students learn everything from computer. It means that computer perhaps could replace the role of teacher in the classroom if the teacher could not control the technology.
Based on the explanation of  CALL and the advantage and the disadvantage of CALL could give the consideration to education practitioners, teachers, schools that want to use the CALL program in their school as medium teaching and learning English in the classroom which is to facilitate the English lesson as second language learning.

References
Ahmad, Khursid. (1991). Computers, Language Learning and Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chapelle, Carol. (2008). Tips for teaching with CALL: practical approaches computer –assisted language learning. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.
Hartoyo. (2008). Individual Differences in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Semarang:Pelita Insani Semarang.
Loannou-Georgiou, Sophie. (2006). The future of CALL. ELT Journal Volume 60/4 October 2006. Oxford: Oxford University Press

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