1. What kind of human alternative has human being made instead of adaptation to the environment?
Human made series of inventions to adapt to the environment. He didn’t accept the environment, but he changed it through his imagination, reason, emotion, and toughness. Human has remade his environment is diffierent kind of evolution – not biological, but cultural evolution.
2. What does Bronowski mean by the ascent of men?
According to Bronowski, the ascent of men means that men are distinguished from other animals by their imaginative gift. Men make plans, inventions, new discoveries, by putting different talents together. Their discoveries become more subtle and penetrating as they learn to combine their talents in more complex and intimate ways. So the great discoveries of different ages and different cultures, in technique, in science, in the arts, express in their progression a richer and more intricate conjunction of human faculties, an ascending trellis of his gifts.
4. How is the evolution of man different from the evolution of animals?
The evolution of man different from the evolution of animals by functioning and empowering his brain, his imagination, they make plans, inventions, new discoveries, they remade the environment. They not only underwent the biological evolution but also cultural evolution.
5. Mention several examples of the peak of human achievements!
The several example of the peak of human achievements are the code of DNA spiral, the relativity theory, atomic bomb, astronomy, geometry.
6. Where did Bronowski start his research? Why did he choose that place?
He started his research in Africa near the equator because it is the place where Darwin’s evolution may have begun is savannah country that stretches out across Northern Kenya and South West Ethiopia near Lake Rudolf. Africa has an unique structure.
7. Mention Darwin two books that Bronowski took as his reference in his research?
The Origins of the Species in 1859 and The Descent of Man in 1871
8. When was the ‘Ancestor’ of men estimated to begin to walk on the ground?
Two million years ago, the first certain ancestor of man walked with a foot which is almost distinguishable from the foot of modern man. The fact is that when he put his foot on the ground and walked upright, man made a commitment to a new integration of life and therefore of his limbs.
9. List the names of the animals that has experienced evolution from ‘lemur’ to homo sapiens?
- Fossil Lemur,
- Australophhecus robustus,
- Australopithecus africanus,
- Homo – Homo erectus,
- Homo sapiens.
10. Explain the expression : “Two millions years ago we were not men but one million years ago we were”
One million years ago a creature appears who can be called Homo-Homo erectus. He is the first creature that certainly used fire. Before hands, two millions ago, there was no suchcreature who use tools in their lives.
11. What kinds of evidence were found to show that there has been an important cultural change in about 50 thousand years ago?
Change in diet is important in a changing species over a time as long as fifty million years. The earliest creatures in the sequence leading to man were nimble-eyed and delicate fingered insect and fruit eaters like the lemurs. Early apes and hommids, from Aegyptopithecus and Proconsul to the heavy Australopithecus, are thought to have spent their days rummaging mainly for vegetarian foods. But the light Australopithecus broke the ancient primate habit of vegetarianism. The change from a vegetarian to an omnivorcus diet, once made, persisted in Homo Erectus, Neanderthaliman and Homo Sapiens.
12. What kind of change of way of life happened at the end of the ice age?
The invention of the bow and arrow came at the end of the last Ice Age. They changed their live to depend on less on plants and more on animals. However, it became less attractive to stalk single animals, large. The better was to follow herds and not to lose them.
13. Which of human organ has undergone the most far reaching and formative change?
The head was the human organ which has undergone the most far-reaching and formative changes.
14. What kind of contribution did Raymond Dart give to the study of human evolution?
Raymond Dart had found fossil which had the characteristic structure of head began to be man-like that called Taung. He was combined a measure of the size of the Taung child’s teeth with their shape and discriminate of from the the teeth of apes.
15. How does Bronowski explain the difference between an animal in flight and athlete in a sport exercise?
He explained there are physical differences between man and the other animal, even between man and the apes. In the act of vaulting, the athlete grasps his pole, for example, with an exact grip that no ape can quite match. The athlete is an adult whose behavior is not driven by his immediate environment, as animal actions are. His actions make no practical sense at all; they are an exercise that is not directed to the present. The athlete’s mind is fixed up ahead of him, building up his skill; and he vaults in imagination in to the future.
16. How many fossils of heads are available to reconstruct the evolution from monkey to change to man?
There are six and seven essentially distinct skulls which can identify as stages in the evolution.
16. In the change of the head there are three parts that change significantly. Which parts are they?
They are Brain space, snout, and position of the eyes.
17. What do you know about the Swedish Lapp tribe way of life which change the culture from hunting to breeding and taming animals?
The people follow the reindeer as they did during the ice age. There are 30.000 people and three hundred thousand reindeer, and their way of life is coming to an end even now. They simply move where the herds move. There lies a fundamental difference between a cultural adaptation and biological one. And both can be demonstrated in the Lapps can change tomorrow – most of them are doing so now. A Swedish Lapp woman with her children on the Summer migration to the coastal islands of Norway follow the wild reindeer herd.
18. The cave painting of the primitive is basically the same as the modern outer space project in the sense of human faculty to visualize the future?
The cave paintings fix the for ever the universal base of his culture then, the hunter’s knowledge of the animal that he live by and stalked. There were the ability to visualise the future, to foresee what may happen and plan to anticipate it, and to represent it to ourselves in images that we project and move about inside our head, or in a square of light on the dark wall of a cave or a television screen. The men who made these paintings, the men who were present, looked through that telescope forward and also the men who made the weapons were doing the same thing – anticipating a future as only, man can do, inferring what is to come from what is here.