Mid Test Philosophy of Muhammadiyah



1.     Definitions of Religion are:

  1. The confession that there is connection between human and the life force that must be obeyed.
  2. The confession that there is life force that controls the human.
  3. Fastening the self to a live creature that has confession to the source which is outside human and affects human actions.
  4. Believing to life force that makes the certain way of life.
  5. The code of conduct that comes from the life force.
  6. The confession that there are obligations to believe from the life force
  7. Educations were given by God to human through a messenger.

Therefore, religion is Islam that brought by prophet Muhammad saw which is stated in Qur’an and Sunnah such as commands, prohibitions, and instruction to kindness human in the world and the hereafter. Or Islam is God religion that have been given to the messengers as hidayah and Rahmat of God to human along time, that guarantee living in material and spiritual, duniawi and ukhrawi.

2.     Definition of Islam :

The religion of God that was given to the messengers as hidayah and rahmat of God to human being that guarantees the fine living such as spirituality, materiality, ukhrawi.

It is also defined as the religion that was brought by Muhammad SAW as the last messenger that carried the God lessons which is stated in Qur’an and Sunnah to kindness human in the world and the hereafter.

3.     Aspects of Islam are :

  • Aqidah (Belief) :

–          Aqidah or iman (belief) which is believed in the heart, expressed in good words, and carried out in real endeavors, is the principle crietion by which God determines true value of human endeavors.

The Qur’an says:

Righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and the Angels and the Scripture and the Prophets; and giveth his wealth, for love of him, to kisfolk and to orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and to those who ask, and to set slave free;

and observeth proper worship and payeth the poor-due. And those who keep their treaty when they make one, and the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such as they are who are sincere. Such are God fearing.

From these verses, Muhammadiyah doctrine concludes that all endeavors and all righteousness should be based on the belief in God and the Last day and the Angels and the Scripture and the prophets. Believes in God is the principle aspect of iman.

–          Principle of life and believing on faith as tawhid to Allah SWT that no one God expects Allah SWT.

–          Faith and Tawhid as sources of life activities, no denying faith  based on Tawhid, and keep avoiding and rejecting syirik, takhayul, bid’ah and khurafat.

  •   Akhlaq (Islamic Character) :

–          It is a quality of soul which stimulates the emergence of good or bad deeds spontaneously. The good is called akhlaq mahmudah (morally praise worthily) and the bad is called akhlaq madhumah (morally blameworthiy). The Muhammadiyah states that akhlaq mahmudah is an important aspect in building the individual character of every man. Considering the duties of mankind which have to be performed, both to his God and his community, every man is required to have such character. With a good character, man will be able to achieve a proper relationship to his God. And within his community, the role of every individual man is very important. This is because the measure of the worth of society is derived from the sum of the good and evil actions of the individuals of that society.

–           To imitate what prophet Muhammad did in daily life as akhlaq in order to be uswah hasanah such as sidiq, amanah, tabligh, and fathanah.

–          Some other character-traits reflected in the behavior of Ahmad Dahlan indicate that he was pious (saleh), generous (dermawan), wise (bijaksana), sincere (ikhlas), simple (sederhana), resolute (tabah), just ( adil), and bold (berani)

–           To avoid ourselves have bad behavior like riya, arrogant, ishraf, fasad, fahsya, and munkar.

–           to show akhlaq karimah not akhlaq mazmumah

–          to avoid from doing corruption, collusion and nepotism that would bring bad impact to the living in this world

–          the Islamic ethics consists in moral attitude towards God, individuals, family, society, and environment. Some of the moral attitudes such as belief, devoutness (taqwa), trust in God (tawakkal), gratitude (syukur), and those attitudes which accompany all good endeavors and whose intent is to seek mardhatillah (God’s agreement)

–          the moral attitude to the individual is described as being based on the explaination of the Qur’an concerning with the commandments and prohibitions, such as : not to comply with passion, to refrain from anger, have truthworthiness, humility (tawadu’), responsibility, patience, simply, providing a good example (uswatun hasanah), sincerity (ikhlas), hard work, discipline, consistency, generosity, avoiding waste, extravagance, dissemblance (riya’) arrogance, jealousy, and greed.

–          The most important moral attitude in terms of the family is “kindness to parents” (birr al-walidain), and to all other members of the family and relatives. The moral attitude which should be adopted towards society at large is based on good attitude to and respect for others, such as: creating good relationships with neighbors, respecting with others, not betraying anyone, not having a poor opinion of others

–          To environment, the attitude which has to be developed is to approach it appropriately and not to cause its destruction.   

  •  Ibadah (Religious Service):

–          An act which is performed in order to approach God, and consists in obeying all His commandments and in doing only that which is allowed by Him. In this sense, there are two kinds of ‘ibadah, the general and the particular. The general is any lawful action that is performed in order to achieve the grace and mercy of God. The particular is any action that should be performed completely in the way of God and in accordance with what His Apostle has taught concerning manner and rules, such as praying, fasting, almsgiving, and pilgrimage.

–          Be muttaqin as human

–          To do mahdhah in appropriate way and try to do nawafil /sunnah

  • Muamalah Duniawiah (Social Relation) :

–          Realize that human as slave of God and Caliph in the world and always think positive

–          Think as burhani,bayani,and irfan that reflect the way thinking of Islam and oriented to hablumminannas and hablumminallah.

–          Islamic work ethos such as work hard, discipline, not wasting time, try maximally and optimally to reach the goal.

4.     Sources of Islam : Al-Qur’an and Sunnah

  1. Al-Qur’an         :

The holy book that bestowed to Prophet Muhammad SAW

2.   Sunnah Rasul :

The explanations and implications of Al-Qur’an messages that given by prophet Muhammad SAW with using logical thinking as same as the soul of Islam messages.

5.     Identity of Muhammadiyah :

The important formulation of “what Muhammadiyah is?” that the point is instead of statement that Muhammadiyah as Islam Movement especially it consist of ten characteristics of Muhammadiyah. They are:

  1. To give and to struggle for peace and welfare
  2. To get many friends and do ukhhuwah islamiyah
  3. graceful, wide view, with holding tight the Islamic teachings
  4. Religious and  social life
  5. To obey all kind of law, rules, and foundation and philosophy of nation
  6. Amar ma’ruf nahi munkar in all of fields as good role model
  7.  Be active in development of society (ishlah)
  8. Be cooperative with all Islamic organization in spreading and accomplishing the religion and depend of the interest
  9. To help the government and to cooperate with other organizations in maintain and build the country to achieve equitable and prosperous society blessed by Allah
  10. Be equitable and be corrective inside and outside of organization

    6. The meaning of Muhammadiyah as Islamic Movement :

Muhammadiyah is  as Islamic movement born, raise, and develop in this country Indonesia and this earth is to spread dakwah (religious speech) and tajdid through all of efforts that have been doing, so that Islam for the followers is able to form the truly Islam society and for entirely human being could be rahmatan lil ‘alamin

According to Mukti Ali point of view stated that all of thinking and Muhammadiyah movement ties with the string of development since it was born to now, it conclude as the following below:

  1. To clean Islam in Indonesia from the effect and the behavior which is not Islam
  2. Reformulate the Islamic doctrine by modern thinking view
  3. Reformulate  lessons and Islam education
  4. Defense Islam from the impact and the outside attack.

    7.     The meaning of Muhammadiyah as dakwah and cultural movement

In general is the effort to ask and persuade a person or a group of people (society) in order to believe and to do Islam doctrines or provide Islam in the real life. Dakwah here means development of quality of human  resources, manage the poor people, reduce stupidity, and backwardness, liberty as well. Dakwah is also spread rahmat Allah, so that Islam can be rahmatan lil ‘alamin

Dakwah cultural means the efforts to put Islam values in the whole of dimension of life by considering the potentions and tendency that human as widely cultural creature in order to provide the real Islamic society.

For example :

–            When K.H.Ahmad Dahlan period he saw many people did submission food and flower in the cemetery and this activity should be eliminate because it was not Islamic lesson and the prophet of Muhammad messages.

–           When K.H.Ahmad Dahlan saw one of woman wore inappropriate clothes then he asked the woman to wear closed clothes and used veil which was good for woman to avoid fitna’.

–          When someone was death then his family had to spend  more money to make some meals to give to people or neighbor. According to Muhammadiyah it was too much and Islam does not force to make some meals then give to people in celebrating the death man.



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