Teaching and learning English have been conducted in many reasons, situations and places. It is based

on the needs of the students or the users. Jeremy Harmer had divided learning English according to places of the teaching and learning such as School and language school where English is learnt in the school based on the curriculum; in school and in company where English is learnt to achieve the high score and the teacher is hired by the company to teach the employers to get the goal; real and virtual learning environments where English is learnt through the internet access because of the different region or country.

Not only the places, but also the class size has been the crucial object in English learning and teaching. It will influence the English acquisition and achievement. He discussed about the class size into two categories. They are one-to-one teaching and large classes. One-to-one teaching known is as private class and it usually popular for business students. It is easier to teach individual student than many students; flexible and easy to manage. There are some guidelines in teaching one-to-one such as make a  good impression with the student; be well prepared with the lesson; be flexible with the condition and the time of the student; adapt to the students from any backgrounds by listening and watching them; give clear explanation and guidelines; don’t be afraid to say no.

For the large classes, there are some interactions and vary of characteristics of the students. He also give the key of success in teaching large class such as be organized with the students; establish routines activities in the class so they recognize the teacher means; use a different pace for different activities; maximize individual work to keep them busy; use the students in some responsibilities; use worksheet; use pairwork and groupwork; use chorus reaction; take account of vision and acoustics; and use the size of the group to your advantage.There are also managing the mixed ability in the class and how to deal with monolingual, bilingual and  multilingual in the classroom.


In teaching lesson especially English, the teachers have to deal with the students as describe in fifth chapter Harmer tried to describing the characteristics of learners that are related to age, learner differences language levels, and the motivation of the learners.


In chapter 23, he tried to explain about learner autonomy: learning to learn. To learn a language especially foreign language is very difficult for the students so they have to practice and expose their ability outside the class. Learner autonomy is important, that’s why the teachers should promote the autonomy in the classroom; learner training, learner autonomy; the self-access centre (SAC); after (and outside) the class.

HOW TO TEACH             

There are so many reasons why there are a lot of people want to learn English. Many of them learn English because they have joined to target language community and try to successful in their community. In ESP, the students study English because they need to know how to operate the English in their field. These purposes of learning have become an impact on what they want and need – and as the result will influence what they are taught.



In chapter 1 Brown tried to suggest twelve principles in language teaching; they are automacity deals with timely movement of control; meaningful learning deals with better long-term retention; the anticipation of reward; intrinsic motivation that will give them power in learning from their inside; strategic investment of time, effort and attention as individually battery in comprehending and producing the language, etc.

A principled approach to language teaching makes the teacher engaging on process of diagnosis, treatment, and assessment. Those processes are focused in the classroom deal with the context, purposes and students needs in language teaching and learning.

In chapter 11 Oxford gives some strategies in language learning. The ESL teachers could help their students recognize the power of consciously using language learning strategies to make learning quicker, easier, and more effective and more fun. They also could bring these strategies to regular classroom based on the communicative needs and the particular situation. The learning strategies have also become the research field for all teachers and educators in the world.

In chapter 12 Nunan tried to show learning strategy from the research that conducted by him. From his study, he made opportunities to the learners to reflect on the learning process. The study supported the idea in language classroom that have dual focus – the content of language teaching and developing on language process.


Teaching Writing

Teaching Writing


Methodology in Language Teaching


Writing is a productive skill that need in language acquisition. It is also known as difficult skill to master by both L1 and L2 students. The students have difficulties in organizing words and ideas to be a good sentences and writings. In writing, the students have to understand the function of grammar, spelling, punctuation and vocabulary selection. The issues are also made by the teachers that are not confident to teach the students because they are also not competence in composing. They never do writing outside the classroom.  The book has four articles that would describe the implementation the teaching writing to the students to be good and communicative writers.

            First article is written by Raimes that explained about the guidelines in planning writing course and training the teachers of writing. The guidelines consist of learning goals that would help teachers to achieve in the end of the lesson, e.g : do the students write well and have the accuracy on grammar, spelling and punctuation? Have the student compose well based on the topic that been given?  Or have the students written their communicative ideas and feel confident in delivering the ideas? All these goals have been the consideration of all teachers in teaching writing. Next step is about how to decide the theoretical principles. There were debating within involving the ideology in teaching writing or not. However, the teachers could confront the ideological position and identify the perception of the type of writing and the roles with the students’ future which is the real life. These ideologies sometimes come from the theory and view of language, the nature of language learning, writing and the nature of the learning of composition. Moreover, the important thing is to teach the writing for in their life and get something meaningful from learning it. Next step is planning the content of writing that would engage the students to write more and more. Therefore, the teachers have to plan an interesting lesson in this skill and use the valuable tool not only for learning the subject but also the important thing is about the language. The students need interesting topics that would help them to generate and find the forms to fit the ideas which take a risk. Next step is weighing the elements which involve the most important parts; they are content, organizing, originality, style, accuracy, and rhetorical forms. Next is Drawing up a syllabus that helps the teachers to organize the content and learning experience in the classroom. Based on Richards (1990) the syllabus consists of structural, functional, topical, situational, skill and process and task.  This will guide the teachers to design the syllabus that depends on the students’ goal, theoretical principles, and institution constraints. Sixth step is the teachers have to clever in selecting the materials that fit with the students’ need and interest especially in writing. The seventh step is the preparation to do the activities in the classroom. The teachers have to be careful in delivering the lesson especially writing because if the teachers are lack of preparation the students will not understand and sometimes don’t pay attention. The teachers should share their experience when they are as students so the students could learn easily. The eighth step is the teachers have to be smart in choosing the type of learning and how they give some feed back to the students so, the students will understand what they should do next and help them with the writing. The ninth step is the way of the teachers to evaluate the students’ writings by using portfolios. It is really helpful to see acceptable and good writings of students. The last step is how the teachers reflect the experience of teaching writing to evaluate the teachers and discuss about the problems in the course so they will find the way out. The problems are not only from the students but also from the goals, theories, content, focus, syllabus, material, activities, and feedback. This is important to do after teaching the lesson to get the best teaching and learning in the future.

            The second article is about the writing process and process of writing that was written by Anthony Seow. The writing process is a classroom activity including basic writing stages – planning, drafting (writing), revising (redrafting) and editing. Three other stages could be added after the drafting stages; these are responding, evaluating, and post-writing. The process of writing is how the teachers do in the process of writing which are teacher modeling, relating process to product, working within institutional constrains, providing to diverse student needs, and exploiting the use of computers in process writing. The teachers have to give the correction and give the feedback on students’ writings. So, the students could revise and do better in their writings.

            The third article is a genre-based approach to content writing instruction written by Randy Reppen. This article basically explain about how genre could use in the writing process and it has been discussed as an approach to the students that give the opportunities to aware of different purpose of written communication and different ways is organized in written texts. Reppen was doing a research on genre-based approach to content of writing instruction and he found that the students when writing as individual, they had s strong desire to turn any task into a story. However, they tend to be struggled and become aware that different task demanded different texts. It is valuable practice in various school-valued ways of writing while they learn content material and work through steps in writing process. Instruction needs to provide a framework so that students can progress toward more academically valued ways of composing, learn the content material, and have a better chance to experience success in school.

            The fourth article is about teaching students to self-edit written by Dana Ferris. The article explains about Ferris observation on how to teach students get used to make editing in their writings, not only once but several times to get better result of writing. The self-editing is important as the writing skill itself. This editing has a process of stages such as focusing on form, recognizing major error types, self-editing practice. The stages will help them to be editor for their own work which focus on the students’ own written errors, especially that affect the whole meaning of their written texts.

Teaching Reading



Methodology in Language Teaching

Reading is a skill that really important in language acquisition. The skill that needs more exposure to get more input and information about the language especially English language is one of language component. The teachers have to be creative in using text as material and activities in the classroom so that the students are motivated to read more texts or books. From reading, the students could learn anything including vocabulary, grammar, spelling and sentences. So they could improve their writing or other skills. There are three articles in this book to overcome the issues in teaching reading.  First article describes the problems that are always faced by the teacher in teaching reading both in the first language and the second language. How the teacher find dilemmas in teaching reading because it is something that crucial in teaching language. These nine dilemmas intended to incite discussion or debate in L2 instructional practices. They can lead to have research agendas and instruction; it can see from how the context L1 could influence L2 context of reading, how the vocabulary could be a part of the reading mastery, how formal aspects of language and genre structure influence the comprehension and reading ability, how to motivate the students to read a lot, etc. These issues could open the discussion on the research and to find the solution to cope the problems in the teaching reading and reading practices.

The second article describe about teaching strategic on reading that written by Joy Janzen. He describe about the implication of reading strategy research for teachers that can be conducted to solve problems in teaching reading. The reading strategies including summarizing, predicting, clarifying, and asking questions can be used and can be taught to the students, these strategies can help the students to improve students’ performance on comprehension of texts and help to develop as strategic readers. The purpose of this article is to describe how a version of a comprehensive approach to teaching strategic reading is working successfully in ESL classroom. There are effective instructions in strategic reading such as general reading discussion, teacher modeling, student reading, analysis of strategies used by the teacher or by students when thinking aloud, and explanation /discussion of individual strategies on regular basis. Janzen used this approach in his classroom and conducted these classroom processes. He found out that the approach was adapting of reading strategic from an L1 situation to an L2 environment, a very important issues to consider was how fast the teacher should introduce new strategies. The result of the research is using the method have been very positive for the students; they can read and think aloud and identify strategies to use that help them to understand their reading process better, in both their L1 and their L2.

The third article describe about extensive reading  which is doing activities reading for long and large quantities to get general understanding that can do outside the classroom without any pressure and the purpose sometimes for pleasure. Based on the article there are some characteristics of successful of Extensive Reading (ER) program such as:

  1. Students’ read large amounts of material
  2. Students’ usually choose what they want to read
  3. Reading materials vary in terms of topic and genre
  4. The material students read is within their level of comprehension
  5. Teachers read with their students, thus modeling enthusiasm for reading
  6. Teachers and students keep track of student progress

The benefits of Extensive Reading as following:

  1. It could improve language learning including vocabulary, spelling grammar and text structure
  2. Increase knowledge and information about the world
  3. Improve other skill; writing and speaking and reading itself
  4.  Get pleasure and enjoyment
  5. More positive attitude
  6. Get developing a reading habit
  7. develop language exposure

This program is practical to do in the class for all teachers and students. By encouraging the students to read extensively and showing them how to do so, by giving they chance to pick their own text material in ESL hope they could develop their writing style, an adequate vocabulary, advanced grammar and good speaker or good speller. After that the teachers do some research to see if the implementation of the program is successful or not.

My Reflection in Teaching and Learning English


My Reflection in Teaching and Learning English

This is my reflection of English. First of all, I would like to divide into three parts of categories. They are past, present and future. I would start with the past. I know English from my father. It began when I was a child. My father always gave me some books, especially English books. The book that I still remember was the vocabulary books with the pictures. The pictures were very interesting and colorful so it made me enjoy reading the book. I always read the book and memorize some words. That was the first time I knew about English. Later on, when I opened my father’s cabinet I found so many English books inside. There were Lado series and English 900 which were used in Audiolingual method. At that time I did not realize how important the books in the English method. Then, I kept the books and my father never told me about this. His hobby is collecting books; every kind of books from education, religion to herbal medicine. I have got something from my father, that parents can influence their children in learning foreign language. By giving some books to their children in foreign language especially English with the interesting and colorful book. It can help the children acquire the language. It is better not only just giving the book but also teaching the children how to pronounce the language or the vocabularies in the book.

Moreover, I got English lesson when I was at first grade in junior high school. The teacher was very good teacher because she always used English while she was explaining the lesson in the class. So, I think she had inspired me to know more about English. Then, when I was at the second grade of junior high school I tried to write a letter to my pen pal in Finland by using English. Whereas I had just learnt English and had no knowledge about writing a letter I had just confidence to write a letter in English. I was very happy when she replied my letter; it means that she understood what I meant. From that time I had motivated myself trying to learn English. From this experience that I can share to my students is I always tell the story to motivate them to write a letter or chat by internet and find some friends from other countries so they can use their English and implicate their ability.

The stages of learning in my life are also important. These stages of learning make me jump to this part in the post graduate. I took long process of learning especially in taking English course as my major. I took Diploma 3 in ABA Buddhi then I continued to English Department of UHAMKA so I took S1 program for six years. It was quite long time but I was grateful that I could have many experiences and knowledge in learning English that I have got great teachers and lectures and friends as well.  So that is why I have a big responsibility about my knowledge that I have got now and I want to share my knowledge to all my students and make them motivated and inspired by my experiences. I sometimes share my story to my students and discussed about everything.

Now I have been realize that I am in the post graduate level and know more about English and it becomes my stages of learning; from knowing nothing to know everything or from zero to hero. I have been autonomous learner since I was at junior high school up to now in learning English. I always made some stories in English to improve my writing. Moreover, I like listening English songs to improve my listening and pronunciation. I never join any kind of the English course but I learn English only from the formal school.  Learning foreign language especially English cannot be successful if the learners do not it seriously and autonomously. I also feel the stages of attitude after I get knowledge and information from school and university. I feel mature and wise in making decision and have considered of anything; which is the best priority of my life. I have tried not to be selfish and arrogant to face and solve the problem. As a teacher, I have some experiences in teaching English. I have become an English teacher since graduated from high school in Elementary school. Then, I also had become a teacher in a course for Elementary and Junior High school. While I was teaching in the course I was also teaching a High School student. When I am teaching English in Elementary school, in Junior High School and in High school I have prepared of myself because they had different objectives, materials, and topics. So, I had to search more information about their lesson and sometimes I took some materials from internet or newspaper and magazine. The best thing is the material has to be related with their daily life so they could understand it easily. As a teacher I have to be creative, especially in making learning activities because if I do not creative our lessons will be boring for students. I want to be a good English teacher for my students that always teach them about new things and make them curious. I can motivate them to use English in a good way. So, I can inspire them in learning English.

In the future, I have long term and short term goal for teaching and learning English. My short term goal is I want to finish my postgraduate as soon as possible and as best as I can. I could apply to University and be lecture of English Department. So I can share my knowledge to all students and improve my English ability in teaching and learning. For the long term is I wish and I hope I have my own course or school especially with the English class. The last but not least of my words is don’t stop practice and expose your English skill to get success in life.



By: Nurbaiti Eka Permanasari




Listening is the first skill that student achieved in the beginning of English lesson because it is naturally the first skill that young learners need to develop before they are ready to speak, read and write. The listening skill can be learnt integrating with others skills in teaching and learning process. The teachers must have strategies in delivering the lesson that relate to their needs, interests, and abilities. By using authentic materials and situation in listening activities encourage their comprehension on the language learning and for their long term communicative goals. The listening lesson is not ended by doing the tasks from books, cassette, or CDs, the students should practice a lot after learning in the classroom and do the listening project to help them be autonomous learners.


English has become a tool of communication these days besides Bahasa Indonesia. It had been learnt from kindergarten level to university level. For English teachers to achieve successful in teaching is to have good planning in teaching the lesson. Planning lesson is an important part in teaching and learning process and it is a key point to have successful in delivering the lesson. Richards and Renandya (2002) while the teachers do planning phase, they have to decide about goals/ objectives, learning activities, resources, timing, grouping and other aspect of the lesson. It can cover the material that is interesting to the students and engages them in learning process. When they are interested and engaged to the lesson, their ability to learn and master new vocabulary and other functions is much higher. The teachers have to plan the lesson in optimizing the learning of EFL. Successful lesson in which students are enjoy and understand in learning with a good lesson plan that helps the teachers. The teachers have to decide what the teachers want to teach, how the teacher teach the lesson or the course and what material and classroom management techniques are needed.

In addition, a good lesson plan should have forms the outcome of the lesson, helps the teacher to be as effective as possible and includes varied activities. However, in making lesson plan sometimes the teachers have to make the syllabus first that contains of numbers of activities and topic of lesson for two semesters in a year. The teachers have to decide what kinds of activities and language focus that are really meaningful for students based on the time that been given to divide as much as the course in a year.

It is impossible for the teachers that teach their students without making preparation especially making lesson plan. The teachers sometimes ask students to open their books and do the task in the book without explaining the course and the language focus that the students must achieve in the end of the lesson, this situation happens in our country these days. The teachers do not optimize their role as a teacher to bring their students to the real world and give their needs when they are studying in the classroom. It can cause many bad things to the students; the teachers seemed do not have responsible to the students what lesson they should receive, what activities they should do in the classroom, what kind of objective that they achieve after learning the lesson. The lesson will be boring and the students are not interested with the lesson. If this situation happens continuously to the students without any warning to the teachers or the school, the worst result is the end of the education in this country.

Listening is the first skill that students have achieved in the first of the English lesson especially to learn new expression or new vocabulary. The students have to know how to pronounce the expression or the vocabulary so they have to concentrate when they are listening them. Sometimes they listen from the teacher voice or from the CD / cassette. Then, they have to exposure what they have learnt inside and outside the classroom because it is not enough if they just depend only on English lesson from a course book or CD that they listen in the classroom. The teachers also must have some effective strategies in delivering the listening lesson.

Based on the issue that always find in the classroom above, the writer try to find out the solution to make the teachers and the students could do their role collaboratively in the classrooms.


The writer will start from the description of the class that wants to teach. It is 7th grade students of SMPN 2 Tangerang that consists of 10 classes and 42 students each class.  They belong to large class so the writer tries to find out the teaching strategy and activities that fit with students.  The 7th  grade students is young learner students or adolescents, before making the lesson plan it is better for us to know their characteristic so we know their needs, interest and abilities. According to Harmer Adolescents is bound up, after all, with a pronounced search for identity and need for self-esteem; adolescents need to feel good about themselves and valued. They are often seen as problem students. Most of them understand the need for learning and, with the right goals, can be responsible enough to do what is asked them. Based on the description of adolescents that the teacher’s job is to engage the students with the materials which relevant and involving to the learning activities. The teachers must encourage them to have the real experience and situation to have communication competence as stated in the curriculum. After knowing their characteristic, the teachers can easily choose what kind materials and activities that fit with them.

The next step is classroom management, it is really important considered in teaching the course. The school has large classes; it can be seen from the number of students in each class. There are some points that the teachers should notice in classroom management: first is arranging the classroom; for the large number class the desk arrangement is not flexible. However, it can be solved by considering the tasks and the goals. The goals that adapted from McIntyre are: promoting attention and minimizing distractions, providing structure, access and orderliness, and making efficient use of limited space. The teacher could arrange the desk based on the activities that are needed. So, the teacher could move around to every student and the students could move without disturbing others. Second is grouping the students; the teacher could use the grouping the students that relates to students’ learning activities which are pair work and group work. It will help teacher if the time is limited. Third is giving instructions; the teachers should give clear instructions to the students whether the instructions are related to the lesson or not. It is to save the time and avoid confusion which the instructions and directions are useful in the real communication. Fourth is eliciting from students; eliciting means getting information, ideas, etc about the topic or the language item that is going to be learned by asking the students questions about the topic and allowing them to share what they already know. The fifth is correction errors; how the teachers give correction from students’ mistake and help them to find the right answer because mistake is part of learning process. The last is managing student behavior; it is an important part in good classroom management, how the teacher could deal with the students’ behavior. If the teacher could handle the students that they can cooperative and in control the whole class will be productive and all students can learn well.

Moreover, in planning lesson the teachers should put the critical thinking skills because teaching is not just about “transfer” the knowledge. The effective lessons are those that cause the students to think. Educational researchers conclude that there are nine categories of effective teaching strategies for increasing students’ critical thinking skills (Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock, 2003). They are identifying similarities and differences, summarizing, reinforcement, focused homework, nonlinguistic presentation, cooperative/collaborative learning, goal-setting and feedback, generating and testing hypotheses and using cues and questions.  These categories could be put in the students’ tasks, so they have critical thinking skill while learning the lesson.

The objective of listening skill in 7th grade based on the Curriculum 2006 is the students are able:

  • Understand the meaning of simple transactional and interpersonal conversation to interact with the close community.
  • Understand the meaning of simple and short functional text to interact with the close community. (Adapted from Standar Kompetensi Bahasa Inggris SMP, Permendiknas No.22 tahun 2006).

Moreover, Tessa Woodward (2001) points out about the objective listening skill; when listening, one has to be able to:

  • Recognize sounds, words and phrases
  • Get the general idea, remember salient points and predict what’s coming next
  • Understand the discourse type or genre you’re listening to
  • Get used to listening to different types of people for differing lengths of time
  • Screen out what you’re not interested in and focus on what you are interested in
  • Deal with accents and dialects
  • Interpret a message against a background of expectations and respond accordingly.

 From these objectives, the writer could have point of view about what kind materials and activities that students must get and achieve.

            English lesson in the 7th grade of SMP has 32 meetings x 40 minutes/ hour. There are four skills that have to teach in English lesson. It means that listening skill has 8 meetings x 40 minutes in one semester.  There are four units in the textbooks that students must learn. In these four units, listening skill has to learn integrated with other skills; speaking, reading and writing. Listening skill is useful for students and could be learnt by integrating of learning activities. As Harmer (2007) said skill integration is a major factor in lesson planning. Many general English courses are designed to involve students in all four skills. Moreover, Schwartz (1998) points out that listening is the language modality that is used most frequently. It has been estimated that adults spend almost half their communication time listening, and students may receive as much as 90% of their in-school information through listening to instructors and to one another. Based on the theories, listening could teach and learn integrated with other skills that relate to the topic and contents in every unit.

To optimize the lesson plan of listening skill, the writer has some strategies in teaching listening to the students. The strategies are classroom management that the writer discuss earlier, including critical thinking in the students tasks, using authentic materials and situation to bring the real experience in the classroom, using visual media such as pictures, facial expressions, movements, and mimes to support listening activities, and songs, poems, short story, real objects, etc can be used in the listening activities. Furthermore, in the listening there are three stages; pre-listening, in/while listening and post listening. Based on Woodward (2001) in pre-listening, students are prepared for listening by getting them interested in the topic, discussing what words may come up; in the while-listening students do the listening and work on the allotted tasks that are designed to make the listening easier; in the post-listening the students do evaluation, discussion of the topic of the text or practice the language encountered in the text. These stages could be completed by some activities such as:

  • Listening songs to teach new vocabularies and grammars.
  • Dictation some words to teach their spelling, sounds, concentrate, and writing.
  • Listen and repeat types can be fun while motivating to learn English (Scott and Ytreberg,1990)
  • Reading story and repeat then telling the story.
  • Responding and commands using TPR

By giving various activities in every meeting of listening course, it will make students feel meaningful and have the real experience, develop their abilities in focusing the information and raising their awareness to the information that they hear so that they can learn to respond appropriately and participate in real conversation. After they learning listening skill, the learning process has not over yet. The students have to continue the process of learning outside the classroom which is they have to be autonomous learners. The teacher could ask them to listen some of English listening genres like radio and television program, announcement in the airport, in the harbour or in the cinema, telephone customer service, etc. These can be their listening project to figure out how they understand the meaning of text that close with their community. After that they can compare their project with their friends to get reflection and feedback what they have done before.


To achieve successful in language teaching and learning not only in Junior high school level but also in all level of education, the teachers must have a good planning in the course. Where the teachers want students bring to, it is the successful or the failure. The teachers have to consider some points and strategies in delivering the lesson. The teachers have to put consideration to students’ characteristics; about their needs, interests and their abilities. After that, classroom management; arranging the classroom, grouping students, giving instruction, eliciting from students, correcting errors and managing students behavior.  Listening is crucial subject to learn because the students must develop it before they learn other skills and it can also be integrated with other skills in teaching and learning process.  Next, the teachers have to link the materials with their surroundings such as using the authentic materials and situations in listening activities and give them meaningful listening activities. After doing listening activities in the classroom, the students should have listening activities outside the classroom. Therefore, the teachers have to give tasks or listening project to the students. It will encourage them to improve their listening skill and achieve the goal of listening competence. It also helps them to become autonomous learners and have self-esteem in communication.


Anonymous. Kurikulum KTSP. 2006. Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 22 Tahun 2006 tentang Standar Isi untuk Satuan Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah.Jakarta: Pusat Kurukulum Balitbang Depdiknas.

Diptoadi, Veronica. et al. 2009. Becoming a Creative Teacher: A Manual for Teaching English to Indonesian Elementary Students. Jakarta. Regional English Language Office (RELO) and Lembaga Bahasa Indonesia (LBI).

Harmer, Jeremy. 2007. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Fourth ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Pospieszynska. Magdalena.2001. Listening in FL Classroom: A Few Recipes. The article from the internet: July 6 2012.

Richards, Jack C, and Renandy, Willy A, 2002. Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schwartz. Ana Maria.1998. Listening in Foreign language. Modules for the Professional Preparation of Teaching Assistant in Foreign Languages. Grace Stovall Burkart, ed: Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. July 06 2012

Woodward, Tessa. 2001. Planning Lesson and Courses: Designing Sequences of Work for Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Audiolingual Method and Communicative Language Teaching


Based on the earlier methods from the Direct method approach to reading oral approach, the method was the development of these methods improved by the linguists in America and British in teaching and learning English. They created the new method in language learning especially in English language learning. The first program was ASTP or Army Specialized Training Program in 1942 that involved fifty five universities in America. The program was like the Direct method that concerned to the target language than well-developed methodological basis. Then, there was great demand from foreign students who wanted to enter the universities in America and these students required to follow the training English before studying in the universities. These programs led to the new method which was Audio-lingual method.  The method gave attention to pronunciation and intensive oral drilling of its basic patterns. “They require drill, drill, and more drill, and only enough vocabulary to make such drills possible” (Hockett 1959). The method was the combination of structural linguistics theory, contrastive analysis, aural-oral procedure and behavior psychologist that had transformed language teaching from art to science. The basic principles of an Audiolingual method were used in Lado English series (1970) and English 900 (1964).

There were approach, design and procedure in Audiolingual method.

A. The Approach

  • The theory of language was structural linguistics or structural view of language that had developed the traditional grammar. The primary of structural linguistic used oral language as media of learning. Before learning how to write and read, the important thing is learn how to speak.
  • The theory of learning of Audiolingual method was behavioral psychology with the three elements which are stimulus – response – reinforcement.

B. The Design

  • The objectives of Audiolingual method are short and long term objectives.

The short term consists of first; the structure of sound, form and order in the new language, second; acquaintance with vocabulary items, and third; meaning especially verbal symbol.

The long term is get knowledge and competency as native speaker.

  • The Syllabus

Audiolingualism is used linguistic syllabus which contains the key items of phonology, morphology, and syntax of language.

  • Types of learning and teaching activities

Dialogue and drills form are used in learning activities. Dialogues are used for repetition and memorization. The patterns of drills are repetition, inflection, replacement, restatement, completion, transposition, contraction, expansion, transformation, integration, rejoinder, and restoration.

  • Learner roles

The learners are directed to have skill and produce correct responses. They play reactive role by responding the stimuli.

  • Teacher roles

The roles of teacher are central and active. The teacher is dominated the method of learning and models target of language.

  • The role of instructional materials

It is a guide the teacher to develop language mastery of the learner. Tape recorder and audiolingual equipment have central role in audiolingual course.

C. Procedure

  • Audiolingual method is oral approach to language learning by involving extensive oral instructions and drills in the teaching process.

CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) 

Different from Audiolingualism, CLT was developed in the British language tradition from the late 1960s. It was developed an approach to the English teaching as foreign language by these following reasons; first, the rejection of Audiolingualism in United States, then the British linguists wanted to prove the theoretical assumptions underlying Situational Teaching, second, the different approaches in foreign language teaching that came from changing educational realities in Europe. In 1971 a group of linguists tried to develop language courses on a unit credit system. A British linguist proposed a functional or communicative definition of language that became foundation of developing communicative syllabuses for language teaching. He revised and expanded to be notional – functional syllabus which had impact to Communicative Language Teaching.

  1. Approach
  • Theory of Language

The theory was developed by Hymes (1972) “communicative competence” which that contrast with Chomsky’s theory of competence. It is the functional view of language.

  • Theory of Learning

Contrast to the CLT literature about communicative dimensions of language, little has been written about learning theory. The main people in CLT which are Brumfit, Johnson, Littlewood offered discussion of learning theory. There were three elements of CLT practices; activities that involve real communication promote learning, activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning, and language that is meaningful to the learner promotes learning

  1. Design
  • Objectives

Some objectives on CLT:

  1. Use language as means of expression
  2. Use language as means of expressing value and judgements
  3. Learn the language to express the functions that as a level individual needs
  • The Syllabus

CLT uses the notional syllabus, then Brumfit (1980) the syllabus around notions, functions, and communicational activities are group. Yalden (1987) has classified a number of communicative syllabus types.

  • Types of Learning and teaching activities

CLT uses many activities to engage the learners in the real communication. Littlewood (1981) distinguished two major types of activites:

  1. Functional communication activities
  2. Social interaction activities
  • Learner roles

The role of learner is as negotiator – between the self, the learning process and the object of learning.

  • Teacher roles

The roles of teacher are as facilitator, analyst, counselor, and group process manager.

  • The role of instructional materials

The role is promoting communicative language use with the these kinds materials; text based, task based, and relia.

  1. Procedure

The methodological of procedures (Littlewood, 1981)

  1. Pre-communicative activities:
  •  Structural activities and Quasi-communicative activities

2. Communicative activities:

  • Functional communication activities and Social interaction activities

However, in CLT there are many procedures in communicative classes because of the variety of activities used.

First and Second Language


Book one : First Language Acquisition

According to this book, first language acquisition has been learnt since the baby comes to the world. After that they go through some stages to learn the first language. His mother teaches the baby how to walk and to speak even not in complete words. Basically, the mother has taught the baby to use the language even in simple way because it is more difficult to teach them how to speak than to walk; from murmuring at seven to ten months old then producing their words at six to twelve months old. After that they could combine their words and gestures and sometimes duplicate what adults said. They could produce simple to complex sentences.So that he could communicate in simple way and understand what other people said. The children do exposure from the concept of the language that he had already got from people in their around.
Moreover, social interaction and cognitive development could affect their language acquisition. It has been debated that children acquire the language by nature or nurture. How they learn the language by using the structure and linguistic? And some other rules of language. These rules make them rely on the right and wrong of language use in communication. The goal of the acquisition is to be speaker in their community so they could interact with other people without any boundaries.

Book two : Second Language Acquisition

According to this book, second language acquisition is the learning of another language after learning the first language and sometimes makes someone want to learn the third or the fourth language. The important thing is to understand the concept of the language in first language that had got it the before learning the second language. It is also known as natural exposure situation in the classroom. The next important thing in learning second language is the environment supported the speaker to learn, for example the Bataknese people has to learn Javanese language because he has been studying in Yogyakarta that majority of the people are using Javanese language.
The second language acquisition is acquired as conscious and unconscious knowledge which are phonology, syntax, morphology lexicon, semantics and pragmatics the language. Knowing the second language means that knowing the language as well as the native speaker with the complexity of the language.